RESEARCH ARTICLE


Iodine Status of Breastfed Infants and their Mothers after Sixteen Years of Universal Dietary Salt Iodization Program in Dosso, Niger



Hassimi Sadou*, 2, Yaou Moussa1, Mousbahou Malam Alma2, Hamani Daouda1
1 Laboratoire de Nutrition Humaine. Faculté des Sciences et Techniques. Université Abdou, Moumouni. BP: 10662 Niamey. Niger
2 Biochimiste - Nutritionniste Maître de Conférences Université Abdou Moumouni Faculté des Sciences, BP: 10 662 Niamey. République du Niger


© 2013 Sadou et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Laboratoire de Nutrition Humaine. Faculté des Sciences et Techniques. Université Abdou, Moumouni. BP : 10662 Niamey. Niger; Tel: 227 96 97 37 80; 227 90 38 01 81; Fax: 227 20 31 58 62; E-mail:hassimi@yahoo.com; hassimi.sadou@gmail.com


Abstract

Introduction:

Universal dietary salt iodization (UDSI) was implemented in Niger in 1996. However, since 2000 there was a slowdown in progress against iodine deficiency.

Objective:

The objective was to assess iodine nutritional status of infants and their lactating mothers living in Dosso, the state capital of a severe iodine deficiency region in Niger.

Methods:

The study was centered on 238 full-term infants and their mothers. Some of the data collected were: arm circumference (AC), head circumference (HC) of infant; familial thyroid disease history; the infant feeding method; age of the mother and child; parity, occupation and educational level of the mother.

Results:

In infants, the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) ranged from 20 to 1600 μg/l with a median of 220 μg/L and 17.23 % had iodine deficiency (UIC<l00μg/L). In mothers, the UIC was within 10 and 820 μg/L with a median of 68 μg/L and 69.75 % had iodine deficiency. No significant statistical correlation was found between infant UIC and their age, type of feeding and gender as well as educational level, occupational group, parity and age of their mothers (p>0.05). Spearman's correlation test indicated weak significant correlation between maternal and infant UIC (r = 0,167, p = 0, 01).

Conclusion:

Iodine status was suboptimal in 70% of mothers and 17% (mild to moderate) of breastfed infants, thus indicating an urgent need to provide iodine supplement for lactating women in Dosso.

Keywords: Urinary iodine concentration, infants, lactating women, Iodine nutrition, Niger.